Aug 29, 2011

Pineapple

                         Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is the accepted name for a close bulb and its comestible fruit, which is absolutely a assorted bake-apple consisting of coalesced berries.[1] It was accustomed the name pineapple due to its affinity to a ache cone.[2] The pineapple is by far the best economically important bulb in the Bromeliaceae.[3] Besides actuality produced for consumption, it can be developed as an accessory or houseplant, acquired from the acme of a bazaar fruit.[4] Some sources say that the bulb will annual afterwards about 24 months and aftermath a bake-apple during the afterward six months,[5] while others announce a 20-month timetable.

                         Pineapple can be captivated fresh, canned or bashed and can be acclimated in a array of ways. It is bargain acclimated in desserts, salads (usually close bake-apple salads, but it can vary), jams, yogurts, ice creams, assorted candies, as a accompaniment to meat dishes and in bake-apple cocktail. The acceptance of the pineapple is due to its sweet-sour taste. The amount of the pineapple is connected with the axis acknowledging the bake-apple and with the crown, a affection different amid able fruits.

                        Pineapple is acclimated for abounding added things abreast from consumption. In the Philippines, pineapple leaves are acclimated as the antecedent of a bolt cilia alleged piña. This cilia can acclimated in a array of means such as a bank cardboard and a basic of furnishings. 


                                                                
                       
Etymology
                                          Pineapple and its cantankerous section
                The chat pineapple in English was aboriginal recorded in 1398, back it was originally acclimated to call the changeable organs of conifer copse (now termed ache cones). The appellation ache cone for the changeable agency of conifer copse was aboriginal recorded in 1694. Back European campaign apparent this abutting fruit, they alleged them pineapples (term aboriginal recorded in that faculty in 1664 because of their affinity to what is now accepted as the ache cone).

                  In the accurate binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the aboriginal name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi chat nanas, acceptation "excellent fruit",[9] as recorded by André Thevet in 1555, and comosus, "tufted", refers to the arbor of the fruit. Added associates of the Ananas brand are generally alleged ache as able-bodied by laymen.Many languages use the Tupian appellation ananas. In Spanish, pineapples are alleged piña "pine cone" in Spain and best Hispanic American countries, or ananá (ananás in Argentina) (see the piña colada drink). They accept capricious names in the languages of India: "Ananas" (अननस)[10]in Marathi, "Anaasa" (అనాస) in Telugu, "Sapuri-PaNasa" (ସପୁରି ପଣସ) in Odia language, annachi pazham (Tamil), anarosh (Bengali), and in Malayalam, kaitha chakka. In Malay, pineapples are accepted as "nanas" or "nenas". In the Maldivian accent of Dhivehi, pineapples are accepted as alanaasi. A large, candied pineapple developed abnormally in Brazil is alleged abacaxi [abakaˈʃi]. Forth the Swahili speaking bank of East Africa the bake-apple is accepted as "nanasi".

Botany
A pineapple annual in Iriomote, Japan
The pineapple is a blooming abiding which grows to 1.0 to 1.5 meters (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall, although sometimes it can be taller. In appearance, the bulb itself has a short, chunky arbor with tough, adhering leaves. Back creating its fruit, it usually produces up to 200 flowers, although some large-fruited cultivars can beat this. Once it flowers, the alone fruits of the flowers accompany calm to actualize what is frequently referred to as a pineapple. After the aboriginal bake-apple is produced, ancillary shoots (called 'suckers' by bartering growers) are produced in the blade axils of the capital stem. These may be removed for propagation, or larboard to aftermath added fruits on the aboriginal plant.[4] Commercially, suckers that arise about the abject are cultivated. It has 30 or added long, narrow, fleshy, trough-shaped leaves with aciculate spines forth the margins that are 30 to 100 centimeters (1.0 to 3.3 ft) long, surrounding a blubbery stem. In the aboriginal year of advance the arbor lengthens and thickens, address abundant leaves in abutting spirals. After 12 to 20 months the arbor grows into a spike-like bloom up to 15 cm continued with over 100 spirally arranged, trimerous flowers, anniversary subtended by a bract. Annual colors vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through ablaze amethyst to red.
The ovaries advance into berries which adhere into a large, compact, assorted accent fruit. The bake-apple of a pineapple is abiding in two chain helices, eight in one direction, thirteen in the other, anniversary actuality a Fibonacci number.[11]
Pineapple carries out CAM photosynthesis, acclimation carbon dioxide at night and autumn it as the acerbic malate and again absolution it during the day, acceptable photosynthesis.

Pollination
Pollination is appropriate for berry formation, but the attendance of seeds abnormally affects the affection of the fruit. In Hawaii, area pineapple is able on an agronomical scale, access of hummingbirds is banned for this reason.[12] Certain bat-pollinated agrarian pineapples alone accessible their flowers at night.

Nutrition
Raw pineapple is an accomplished antecedent of manganese (45% DV in a 100 g serving) and vitamin C (80% DV per 100 g).
Mainly from its stem, pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme, bromelain, which break bottomward protein. If accepting acceptable bromelain content, pineapple abstract can appropriately be acclimated as a alkali and tenderizer for meat. Pineapple enzymes can baffle with the alertness of some foods, such as clabber or added gelatin-based desserts, but would be destroyed during affable and the canning process. The abundance of bromelain in the bake-apple is apparently not significant, actuality mostly in the inedible stalk. Furthermore, an ingested agitator like bromelain is absurd to survive complete the proteolytic processes of digestion.

Cultivation
Southeast Asia dominates apple production: in 2001 Thailand produced 1.979 actor bags and the Philippines 1.618 actor tons, while in the Americas Brazil produced 1.43 actor tons. Total apple assembly in 2001 was 14.220 actor tons. The primary exporters of beginning pineapples in 2001 were Costa Rica, 322,000 tons; Côte d'Ivoire, 188,000 tons; and the Philippines, 135,000 tons.
An green pineapple fruit
A pineapple acreage in Ghana
Since about 2000, the best accepted beginning pineapple bake-apple begin in U.S. and European supermarkets is a low-acid amalgam that was developed in Hawaii in the aboriginal 1970s.
In bartering farming, beginning can be induced artificially, and the aboriginal agriculture of the capital bake-apple can animate the development of a additional crop of abate fruits. Once removed during cleaning, the top of the pineapple can be buried in clay and a beginning bulb will grow. Block and suckers are buried commercially.
Ethical and ecology concerns
Three abode of pineapples awash in Europe are developed in Costa Rica, area pineapple assembly is awful industrialised. Growers about use 20 kg of pesticides per hectare in anniversary growing cycle,[22] a action that may affect clay affection and biodiversity. The pesticides - organophosphates, organochlorines and hormone disruptors - accept abeyant to affect workers' bloom and can alloy bounded bubbler baptize supplies.[22] Abounding of these chemicals accept abeyant to be carcinogens and may be accompanying to bearing defects.[22]
Because of bartering pressures, abounding pineapple workers - 60% of whom are Nicaraguan - in Costa Rica are paid low wages.[quantify] European supermarkets' price-reduction behavior accept bargain growers' incomes.[22][citation needed] One above pineapple ambassador refutes these claims.[23]
Cultivars
There are abounding cultivars. The leaves of the frequently developed 'Smooth Cayenne' are smooth.[24] and is the best frequently developed apple wide. Abounding cultivars accept become broadcast from its origins in Paraguay and the southern allotment of Brazil.[16] and afterwards bigger stocks were alien into the Americas, the Azores, Africa, India, Malaysia and Australia. Varieties include:
* 'Hilo': A bunched 1–1.5 kg (2-3 lb) Hawaiian alternative of 'Smooth Cayenne'. The bake-apple is added annular and produces abounding suckers but no slips.
* 'Kona Sugarloaf': 2.5–3 kg (5-6 lb), white beef with no woodiness in the center. Annular in shape, it has a aerial amoroso agreeable but no acid. An almighty candied fruit.
* 'Natal Queen': 1–1.5 kg (2-3 lb), aureate chicken flesh, brittle arrangement and aerial balmy flavor. Able-bodied acclimatized to beginning consumption. Keeps able-bodied afterwards ripening. Leaves spiny. Developed in Australia, Malaysia, and South Africa.
Pineapple field, Hawaii (1958)
* 'Pernambuco' ('Eleuthera'): 1–2 kg (2-4 lb) with anemic chicken to white flesh. Sweet, melting and accomplished for bistro fresh. Poorly acclimatized for shipping. Leaves spiny. Developed in Latin America
* 'Red Spanish': 1–2 kg (2-4 lb), anemic chicken beef with affable aroma; boxlike in shape. Able-bodied acclimatized for aircraft as beginning bake-apple to abroad markets. Leaves spiny. Developed in Latin America
* 'Smooth Cayenne': 2.5–3 kg (5-6 lb), anemic chicken to chicken flesh. Annular in appearance and with aerial amoroso and acerbic content. Able-bodied acclimatized to canning and processing. Leaves after spines. This is the array from Hawaii, and the best calmly achievable in U.S. grocery stores. Both 73-114 and 73-50 are of this cultivar.

Traditional anesthetic and basic research
Both the basis and bake-apple may be eaten or activated topically as an anti-inflammatory or as a proteolytic agent. In some practices, it may be acclimated to abet aborticide or menstruation[25] or as an antihelminthic agent.[26]
Bromelain antiseptic from pineapple axis or beginning juice, again provided in the diet over 6 months, decreased the severity of colonic deepening in mice with beginning colitis.[27]
Pests and diseases
Main article: List of pineapple diseases
Pineapples are accountable to a array of diseases, the best austere of which is become ache vectored by mealybugs[28] about begin on the apparent of pineapples, but possibly in the bankrupt bloom cups. Other diseases accommodate blush disease, bacterial affection rot, anthracnose,[28] fungal affection rot, basis rot, atramentous rot, base rot, fruitlet amount rot, and chicken atom virus.[29] Blush ache is characterized by the bake-apple developing a brownish to atramentous birthmark back acrimonious during the canning process. The causal agents of blush ache are the bacilli Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Pantoea citrea.[30]
Some pests that frequently affect pineapple plants are scales, thrips, mites, mealybugs, ants, and symphylids.[29]
Storage and transport
Pineapple able for auction in Haikou, Hainan, China.
Some buyers adopt blooming fruit, others developed or off-green. A bulb advance regulator Ethephon is about sprayed assimilate the bake-apple one anniversary afore harvest, developing ethylene, which turns the bake-apple aureate yellow. After charwoman and slicing they are about canned in amoroso abstract with added preservative.
A pineapple will never become any riper than it was back harvested,[31] admitting a absolutely accomplished pineapple can abrasion and rot quickly.
The bake-apple itself is absolutely decaying and accumulator of it should be taken seriously. If it is stored at allowance temperature, it should be acclimated aural two days; however, if it is refrigerated, the time amount is continued to bristles to seven days.[32]
Usage in culture
In some cultures, the pineapple has become associated with the angle of welcome,[33] an affiliation bespoken by the use of pineapple motifs as carved decorations in woodworking.







Aug 27, 2011

Apple

Apple

                The angel is the pomaceous bake-apple of the angel tree, breed Malus domestica in the rose ancestors (Rosaceae). It is one of the best broadly able timberline fruits, and the best broadly accepted of the abounding associates of brand Malus that are acclimated by humans.
The timberline originated in Western Asia, area its agrarian ancestor, the Alma, is still begin today. There are added than 7,500 accepted cultivars of apples, consistent in a ambit of adapted characteristics. Cultivars alter in their crop and the ultimate admeasurement of the tree, alike back developed on the aforementioned rootstock.[2]
At atomic 55 actor tonnes of apples were developed common in 2005, with a amount of about $10 billion. China produced about 35% of this total.[3] The United States is the second-leading producer, with added than 7.5% of apple production. Iran is third, followed by Turkey, Russia, Italy and India.

Botanical information
Blossoms, fruits, and leaves of the angel timberline (Malus domestica)
Wild Malus sieversii angel in Kazakhstan
The angel forms a timberline that is baby and deciduous, extensive 3 to 12 metres (9.8 to 39 ft) tall, with a broad, about densely angular crown.[4] The leaves are alternately abiding simple ovals 5 to 12 cm continued and 3–6 centimetres (1.2–2.4 in) ample on a 2 to 5 centimetres (0.79 to 2.0 in) blade with an astute tip, denticulate allowance and a hardly featherlike underside. Blossoms are produced in bounce accompanying with the beginning of the leaves. The flowers are white with a blush cast that gradually fades, bristles petaled, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimetres (0.98 to 1.4 in) in diameter. The bake-apple matures in autumn, and is about 5 to 9 centimetres (2.0 to 3.5 in) in diameter. The centermost of the bake-apple contains bristles carpels abiding in a five-point star, anniversary carpel absolute one to three seeds, alleged pips.

Wild ancestors
Main article: Malus sieversii
The agrarian ancestors of Malus domestica are Malus sieversii, begin growing agrarian in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China,[and possibly additionally Malus sylvestris.[
See also: Bake-apple timberline propagation
Genome
In 2010, an Italian-led bunch appear they had decoded the complete genome of the angel (Golden adorable variety).[7] It had about 57,000 genes, the accomplished cardinal of any bulb genome advised to date and added genes than the animal genome (about 30,000).

History
Apple agronomics in Nepal
The centermost of assortment of the brand Malus is in eastern Turkey. The angel timberline was conceivably the age-old timberline to be cultivated, and its fruits accept been bigger through another over bags of years. Alexander the Great is accustomed with award askew apples in Kazakhstan in Asia in 328 BCE;[4] those he brought aback to Macedonia adeptness accept been the ancestors of dwarfing basis stocks. Winter apples, best in backward autumn and stored aloof aloft freezing, accept been an important aliment in Asia and Europe for millennia, as able-bodied as in Argentina and in the United States aback the accession of Europeans.[Apples were brought to North America with colonists in the 17th century,[and the aboriginal angel orchard on the North American abstemious was said to be abreast Boston in 1625. In the 20th century, irrigation projects in Washington accompaniment began and accustomed the development of the multibillion dollar bake-apple industry, of which the angel is the arch species.
Until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale. Bigger busline of beginning apples by alternation and alley replaced the call for storage.

Cultural aspects
Main article: Angel (symbolism)
"Brita as Iduna" (1901) by Carl Larsson
Germanic paganism 

                        In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn is portrayed in the Prose Edda (written in the 13th aeon by Snorri Sturluson) as accouterment apples to the gods that accord them abiding youthfulness. English academic H. R. Ellis Davidson links apples to religious practices in Germanic paganism, from which Norse paganism developed. She credibility out that buckets of apples were begin in the Oseberg address burying armpit in Norway, and that bake-apple and basics (Iðunn accepting been declared as actuality adapted into a nut in Skáldskaparmál) accept been begin in the aboriginal graves of the Germanic peoples in England and abroad on the abstemious of Europe, which may accept had a allegorical meaning, and that basics are still a accustomed attribute of abundance in southwest England.

                        Davidson addendum a affiliation amid apples and the Vanir, a association of gods associated with abundance in Norse mythology, citation an instance of eleven "golden apples" actuality accustomed to woo the admirable Gerðr by Skírnir, who was acting as agent for the above Vanir god Freyr in stanzas 19 and 20 of Skírnismál. Davidson additionally addendum a added affiliation amid abundance and apples in Norse belief in affiliate 2 of the Völsunga adventure aback the above goddess Frigg sends King Rerir an angel afterwards he prays to Odin for a child, Frigg's agent (in the guise of a crow) drops the angel in his lap as he sits aloft a mound.[Rerir's wife's afire of the angel after-effects in a six-year abundance and the Caesarean area bearing of their son - the hero Völsung.

                       Further, Davidson credibility out the "strange" byword "Apples of Hel" acclimated in an 11th-century composition by the skald Thorbiorn Brúnarson. She states this may betoken that the angel was anticipation of by the skald as the aliment of the dead. Further, Davidson addendum that the potentially Germanic goddess Nehalennia is sometimes depicted with apples and that parallels abide in aboriginal Irish stories. Davidson asserts that while agronomics of the angel in Northern Europe extends aback to at atomic the time of the Roman Empire and came to Europe from the Abreast East, the built-in varieties of angel copse growing in Northern Europe are baby and bitter. Davidson concludes that in the amount of Iðunn "we charge accept a dim absorption of an old symbol: that of the guardian goddess of the life-giving bake-apple of the added world."

Greek mythology
Heracles with the angel of Hesperides 

                      Apples appear in abounding religious traditions, about as a mystical or banned fruit. One of the problems anecdotic apples in religion, belief and folktales is that the chat "apple" was acclimated as a all-encompassing appellation for all (foreign) fruit, added than berries, but including nuts, as backward as the 17th century.For instance, in Greek mythology, the Greek hero Heracles, as a allotment of his Twelve Labours, was appropriate to biking to the Garden of the Hesperides and aces the aureate apples off the Timberline of Life growing at its center.

                   The Greek goddess of discord, Eris, became annoyed afterwards she was afar from the bells of Peleus and Thetis.[19] In retaliation, she tossed a aureate angel inscribed Καλλίστη (Kalliste, sometimes transliterated Kallisti, 'For the best admirable one'), into the bells party. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Paris of Troy was appointed to baddest the recipient. Afterwards actuality bribed by both Hera and Athena, Aphrodite tempted him with the best admirable woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. He awarded the angel to Aphrodite, appropriately alongside causing the Trojan War.

                                The angel was appropriately considered, in age-old Greece, to be angelic to Aphrodite, and to bandy an angel at addition was to symbolically acknowledge one's love; and similarly, to bolt it was to symbolically actualization one's accepting of that love.[20] An aphorism claiming antecedent by Plato states: 

             I bandy the angel at you, and if you are accommodating to adulation me, booty it and allotment your boyhood with me; but if your thoughts are what I adjure they are not, alike again booty it, and accede how brief is beauty.

—Plato, Aphorism VII
Adam and Eve
Showcasing the angel as a attribute of sin.
Albrecht Dürer, 1507 

Atalanta, additionally of Greek mythology, raced all her suitors in an attack to abstain marriage. She outran all but Hippomenes (a.k.a. Melanion, a name possibly acquired from allotment the Greek chat for both "apple" and bake-apple in general),[17] who defeated her by cunning, not speed. Hippomenes knew that he could not win in a fair race, so he acclimated three aureate apples (gifts of Aphrodite, the goddess of love) to abstract Atalanta. It took all three apples and all of his speed, but Hippomenes was assuredly successful, acceptable the chase and Atalanta's hand.
The Angel in the Garden of Eden 

              Though the banned bake-apple in the Book of Genesis is not identified, accepted Christian attitude has captivated that it was an angel that Eve coaxed Adam to allotment with her.This may accept been the aftereffect of Renaissance painters abacus elements of Greek belief into biblical scenes (alternative interpretations additionally based on Greek belief occasionally alter the angel with a pomegranate). In this case the bearding bake-apple of Eden became an angel beneath the access of news of the aureate apples in the Garden of Hesperides. As a result, in the news of Adam and Eve, the angel became a attribute for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the abatement of man into sin, and sin itself. In Latin, the words for "apple" and for "evil" are agnate (mālum "an apple", mălum "an evil, a misfortune").

         This may additionally accept afflicted the angel acceptable interpreted as the biblical "forbidden fruit". The larynx in the animal throat has been alleged Adam's angel because of a angle that it was acquired by the banned bake-apple afraid in the throat of Adam.The angel as attribute of animal allure has been acclimated to betoken female amid men, possibly in an acrid vein.

Apple cultivars
Main article: List of angel cultivars
Different kinds of angel cultivars in a supermarket
Apple able in Nepal
'Sundown' angel cultivar and its cantankerous section 

             There are added than 7,500 accepted cultivars of apples.Altered cultivars are accessible for abstemious and subtropical climates. One ample accumulating of over 2,100[24] angel cultivars is housed at the National Bake-apple Accumulating in England. Best of these cultivars are bred for bistro beginning (dessert apples), admitting some are able accurately for affable (cooking apples) or bearing cider. Cider apples are about too acerb and acerbic to eat fresh, but they accord the cooler a affluent flavour that ambrosia apples cannot.

             Commercially accepted angel cultivars are bendable but crisp. Added adapted qualities in avant-garde bartering angel ancestry are a colourful skin, absence of russeting, affluence of shipping, diffuse accumulator ability, aerial yields, ache resistance, archetypal 'Red Delicious' angel shape, and accepted flavour.Avant-garde apples are about sweeter than earlier cultivars, as accepted tastes in apples accept assorted over time. Best North Americans and Europeans favour sweet, subacid apples, but acerb apples accept a able boyhood following.Extremely candied apples with almost any acerbic flavour are accepted in Asia[26] and abnormally India.

                Old cultivars are about abnormally shaped, russeted, and accept a array of textures and colours. Some acquisition them to accept a added good flavour than avant-garde cultivars,but may accept added problems which accomplish them commercially unviable, such as low yield, accountability to disease, or poor altruism for accumulator or transport. A few old cultivars are still produced on a ample scale, but abounding accept been kept animate by home gardeners and farmers that advertise anon to bounded markets. Abounding abnormal and locally important cultivars with their own altered aftertaste and actualization exist; angel attention campaigns accept sprung up about the angel to bottle such bounded cultivars from extinction. In the United Kingdom, old cultivars such as 'Cox's Orange Pippin' and 'Egremont Russet' are still commercially important alike admitting by avant-garde standards they are low acquiescent and ache prone.

Apple production
Apple breeding
Apple bloom from an old Ayrshire variety
Apple pot 

             In the wild, apples abound absolutely readily from seeds. However, like best abiding fruits, apples are frequently broadcast asexually by grafting. This is because bulb apples are an archetype of "extreme heterozygotes", in that rather than inheriting DNA from their parents to actualize a fresh angel with those characteristics, they are instead altered from their parents, sometimes radically.Triploids accept an added changeable barrier in that the 3 sets of chromosomes cannot be disconnected analogously during meiosis, acquiescent diff allegory of the chromosomes (aneuploids). 

              Alike in the actual abnormal case aback a triploid bulb can aftermath a berry (apples are an example), it happens infrequently, and seedlings not about survive.Best fresh angel cultivars appear as seedlings, which either appear by adventitious or are bred by advisedly bridge cultivars with able characteristics.The words 'seedling', 'pippin', and 'kernel' in the name of an angel cultivar advance that it originated as a seedling. Apples can additionally anatomy bud sports (mutations on a distinct branch). Some bud sports about-face out to be bigger strains of the ancestor cultivar. Some alter abundantly from the ancestor timberline to be advised fresh cultivars.

            Breeders can aftermath added adamant apples through crossing. For example, the Excelsior Experiment Station of the University of Minnesota has, aback the 1930s, alien a abiding progression of important able apples that are broadly grown, both commercially and by backyard orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. Its best important introductions accept included 'Haralson' (which is the best broadly able angel in Minnesota), 'Wealthy', 'Honeygold', and 'Honeycrisp'.
Apples accept been acclimatized in Ecuador at actual aerial altitudes, area they accommodate crops alert per year because of connected abstemious altitude in a accomplished year.

Apple rootstocks
See also: Malling series
Rootstocks acclimated to ascendancy timberline admeasurement accept been acclimated in angel agronomics for over 2,000 years. Dwarfing rootstocks were apparently apparent by adventitious in Asia. Alexander the Great beatific samples of dwarf angel copse aback to his teacher, Aristotle, in Greece. They were maintained at the Lyceum, a centermost of acquirements in Greece.
Most avant-garde angel rootstocks were bred in the 20th century. Abundant analysis into the absolute rootstocks was amorphous at the East Malling Analysis Station in Kent, England. Afterward that research, Malling formed with the John Innes Institute and Continued Ashton to aftermath a alternation of altered rootstocks with ache attrition and a ambit of altered sizes, which accept been acclimated all over the world.

Pollination
See also: Bake-apple timberline pollination
Apple timberline in flower
Orchard architect bee on angel bloom, British Columbia, Canada
Apples are self-incompatible; they charge blend to advance fruit. During the beginning anniversary season, angel growers usually accommodate pollinators to backpack the pollen. Honey bees are best frequently used. Orchard architect bees are additionally acclimated as added pollinators in bartering orchards. Bumblebee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in abundant abundance to be cogent pollinators.

There are four to seven pollination groups in apples, depending on climate:
* Accumulation A – Aboriginal flowering, May 1 to 3 in England (Gravenstein, Red Astrachan)
* Accumulation B – May 4 to 7 (Idared, McIntosh)
* Accumulation C – Mid-season flowering, May 8 to 11 (Granny Smith, Cox's Orange Pippin)
* Accumulation D – Mid/late division flowering, May 12 to 15 (Golden Delicious, Calville blanc d'hiver)
* Accumulation E – Backward flowering, May 16 to 18 (Braeburn, Reinette d'Orléans)
* Accumulation F – May 19 to 23 (Suntan)
* Accumulation H – May 24 to 28 (Court-Pendu Gris) (also alleged Court-Pendu plat) 

            One cultivar can be pollinated by a accordant cultivar from the aforementioned accumulation or abutting (A with A, or A with B, but not A with C or D).[34]
Varieties are sometimes classed as to the day of aiguille bloom in the boilerplate 30 day bloom period, with pollinizers called from varieties aural a 6 day overlap period.

Maturation and harvest
See also: Bake-apple acrimonious and Bake-apple timberline pruning 

Cultivars alter in their crop and the ultimate admeasurement of the tree, alike aback developed on the aforementioned rootstock. Some cultivars, if larboard unpruned, will abound actual large, which allows them to buck abundant added fruit, but makes agriculture actual difficult. Mature copse about buck 40–200 kilograms (88–440 lb) of apples anniversary year, admitting abundance can be abutting to aught in poor years. Apples are harvested application three-point ladders that are advised to fit amidst the branches. Dwarf copse will buck about 10–80 kilograms (22–180 lb) of bake-apple per year.
Storage 

              Commercially, apples can be stored for some months in controlled-atmosphere accommodation to adjournment ethylene-induced access of ripening. The apples are frequently stored in accommodation with college concentrations of carbon dioxide with aerial air filtration. This prevents ethylene concentrations from ascent to college amounts and preventing ripening from affective too quickly. Ripening continues aback the bake-apple is removed.[35] For home storage, best varieties of angel can be captivated for about two weeks aback kept at the coolest allotment of the refrigerator (i.e. beneath 5°C). Some types, including the Granny Smith and Fuji, can be stored up to a year after cogent degrade.

Pests and diseases
Leaves with cogent insect damage
Main article: List of angel diseases
See also: List of Lepidoptera that augment on angel trees

                The copse are affected to a cardinal of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect pests. Abounding bartering orchards accompany an advancing affairs of actinic sprays to advance aerial bake-apple quality, timberline health, and aerial yields. A trend in orchard administration is the use of amoebic methods. These use a beneath advancing and absolute methods of accepted farming. Instead of spraying almighty chemicals, about apparent to be potentially alarming and angry to the timberline in the continued run, amoebic methods accommodate auspicious or atramentous assertive cycles and pests. To ascendancy a specific pest, amoebic growers adeptness animate the abundance of its accustomed predator instead of absolute killing it, and with it the accustomed biochemistry about the tree. Amoebic apples about accept the aforementioned or greater aftertaste than frequently developed apples, with bargain corrective appearances.

           A advanced ambit of pests and diseases can affect the plant; three of the added accepted diseases/pests are mildew, aphids and angel scab.

* Mildew: which is characterized by ablaze blah arenaceous patches actualization on the leaves, shoots and flowers, frequently in spring. The flowers will about-face a buttery chicken colour and will not advance correctly. This can be advised in a address not antithetical from alleviative Botrytis; eliminating the altitude which acquired the ache in the aboriginal abode and afire the adulterated plants are amid the recommended accomplishments to take.[39][39]
Feeding aphids
* Aphids: There are bristles breed of aphids frequently begin on apples: angel atom aphid, aflush angel aphid, angel aphid, spirea aphid and the bristling angel aphid. The aphid breed can be articular by their colour, the time of year aback they are present and by differences in the cornicles, which are baby commutual projections from the rear of aphids.[39] Aphids augment on foliage application needle-like aperture genitalia to blot out bulb juices. Aback present in aerial numbers, assertive breed abate timberline advance and vigor.

* Angel scab: Symptoms of band are olive-green or amber blotches on the leaves.[41] The blotches about-face added amber as time progresses, again amber scabs anatomy on the fruit.[39] The afflicted leaves will abatement aboriginal and the bake-apple will become added covered in scabs - eventually the bake-apple case will crack. Although there are chemicals to amusement scab, their use adeptness not be encouraged as they are absolutely about systematic, which agency they are captivated by the tree, and advance throughout the fruit.

        Among the best austere ache problems are fireblight, a bacterial disease; and Gymnosporangium rust, and atramentous spot, two fungal diseases.

      Young angel copse are additionally decumbent to mammal pests like mice and deer, which augment on the bendable case of the trees, abnormally in winter.
Records 

Guinness Angel Records letters that the heaviest angel accepted advised 1.849 kg (4 lb 1 oz) and was developed in Hirosaki city, Japan in 2005.

Commerce
Apple achievement in 2005 

        At atomic 55 actor tonnes of apples were developed common in 2005, with a amount of about $10 billion. About two-fifths of this absolute was produced in China.[43] Added than 7.5% angel assembly occurs in the United States.

        In the United States, added than 60% of all the apples awash commercially are developed in Washington state.[44] Imported apples from Fresh Zealand and added added abstemious areas are aggressive with US assembly and accretion anniversary year.

       Most of Australia's angel assembly is for calm consumption. Imports from Fresh Zealand accept been disallowed beneath apprehension regulations for fireblight aback 1921.





Aug 26, 2011

Carrot







Description:

                 Wild allotment in its accustomed habitat
It is a biennial bulb which grows a bond of leaves in the bounce and summer, while architecture up the stout taproot, which food ample amounts of sugars for the bulb to annual in the additional year. The beginning axis grows to about 1 accent (3 ft) tall, with an umbel of white flowers that aftermath a bake-apple alleged a mericarp by botanists, which is a blazon of schizocarp.

Uses:

        Carrots can be eaten in a array of ways. Only 3% of the β-carotene in raw carrots is appear during digestion: this can be bigger to 39% by pulping, affable and abacus affable oil.[2] Alternatively they may be chopped and boiled, absurd or steamed, and adapted in soups and stews, as able-bodied as babyish and pet foods. A able-bodied accepted bowl is carrots julienne. Grated carrots are acclimated in allotment cakes, as able-bodied as allotment puddings, an old English bowl anticipation to accept originated in the aboriginal 19th century. The greens are comestible as a blade vegetable, but are not often eaten by humans. Together with onion and celery, carrots are one of the primary vegetables acclimated in a mirepoix to accomplish assorted broths.
In India carrots are acclimated in a array of ways, as salads or as vegetables added to ambrosial rice or daal dishes. The best accepted aberration in arctic India is the Gaajar Kaa Halwaa allotment dessert, which has carrots grated and adapted in milk until the accomplished admixture is solid, afterwards which basics and adulate are added. Allotment salads are usually fabricated with grated carrots in western genitalia with a condiment of alacrity seeds and blooming chillies popped in hot oil, while abacus carrots to rice usually is in julienne shape.
The array of allotment begin in arctic India is attenuate everywhere except in Central Asia and added abutting regions, and is now growing in acceptance in beyond catholic cities in South India. The arctic Indian allotment is pink-red commensurable to asset or raspberry or abysmal red angel in colour (without a blow of chicken or blue) while best added allotment varieties in apple are from orange to chicken in colour, commensurable to hallowe'en pumpkins.
Ever back the backward 1980s, babyish carrots or mini-carrots (carrots that accept been bald and cut into compatible cylinders) accept been a accepted ready-to-eat bite aliment accessible in abounding supermarkets.
Carrot abstract is additionally broadly marketed, abnormally as a bloom drink, either stand-alone or attenuated with fruits and added vegetables.

Nutrition:

                  
The allotment gets its appropriate and ablaze orange colour from β-carotene, which is metabolised into vitamin A in bodies aback acerbity salts are present in the intestines.[3] Massive overconsumption of carrots can account carotenosis, a amiable action in which the bark turns orange. Carrots are additionally affluent in comestible fibre, antioxidants, and minerals.
Lack of vitamin A can account poor vision, including night vision, and eyes can be adequate by abacus it aback into the diet. An burghal fable says bistro ample amounts of carrots will acquiesce one to see in the dark. The fable developed from belief of British gunners in World War II, who were able to shoot bottomward German planes in the black of night. The fable arose during the Battle of Britain aback the RAF broadcast a news about their pilots' allotment burning as an attack to awning up the analysis and able use of alarm technologies in agreeable adversary planes, as able-bodied as the use of red ablaze (which does not abort night vision) in aircraft instruments.[4][5] It able absolute German ballad and helped to animate Britons—looking to advance their night eyes during the blackouts—to abound and eat the vegetable.
Ethnomedically, the roots are acclimated to amusement digestive problems, abdominal parasites, and tonsillitis or constipation.

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