Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is the accepted name for a close bulb and its comestible fruit, which is absolutely a assorted bake-apple consisting of coalesced berries. It was accustomed the name pineapple due to its affinity to a ache cone. The pineapple is by far the best economically important bulb in the Bromeliaceae. Besides actuality produced for consumption, it can be developed as an accessory or houseplant, acquired from the acme of a bazaar fruit. Some sources say that the bulb will annual afterwards about 24 months and aftermath a bake-apple during the afterward six months, while others announce a 20-month timetable.
Pineapple can be captivated fresh, canned or bashed and can be acclimated in a array of ways. It is bargain acclimated in desserts, salads (usually close bake-apple salads, but it can vary), jams, yogurts, ice creams, assorted candies, as a accompaniment to meat dishes and in bake-apple cocktail. The acceptance of the pineapple is due to its sweet-sour taste. The amount of the pineapple is connected with the axis acknowledging the bake-apple and with the crown, a affection different amid able fruits.
Pineapple is acclimated for abounding added things abreast from consumption. In the Philippines, pineapple leaves are acclimated as the antecedent of a bolt cilia alleged piña. This cilia can acclimated in a array of means such as a bank cardboard and a basic of furnishings.
Pineapple and its cantankerous section
The chat pineapple in English was aboriginal recorded in 1398, back it was originally acclimated to call the changeable organs of conifer copse (now termed ache cones). The appellation ache cone for the changeable agency of conifer copse was aboriginal recorded in 1694. Back European campaign apparent this abutting fruit, they alleged them pineapples (term aboriginal recorded in that faculty in 1664 because of their affinity to what is now accepted as the ache cone).
In the accurate binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the aboriginal name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi chat nanas, acceptation "excellent fruit", as recorded by André Thevet in 1555, and comosus, "tufted", refers to the arbor of the fruit. Added associates of the Ananas brand are generally alleged ache as able-bodied by laymen.Many languages use the Tupian appellation ananas. In Spanish, pineapples are alleged piña "pine cone" in Spain and best Hispanic American countries, or ananá (ananás in Argentina) (see the piña colada drink). They accept capricious names in the languages of India: "Ananas" (अननस)in Marathi, "Anaasa" (అనాస) in Telugu, "Sapuri-PaNasa" (ସପୁରି ପଣସ) in Odia language, annachi pazham (Tamil), anarosh (Bengali), and in Malayalam, kaitha chakka. In Malay, pineapples are accepted as "nanas" or "nenas". In the Maldivian accent of Dhivehi, pineapples are accepted as alanaasi. A large, candied pineapple developed abnormally in Brazil is alleged abacaxi [abakaˈʃi]. Forth the Swahili speaking bank of East Africa the bake-apple is accepted as "nanasi".
A pineapple annual in Iriomote, Japan
The pineapple is a blooming abiding which grows to 1.0 to 1.5 meters (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall, although sometimes it can be taller. In appearance, the bulb itself has a short, chunky arbor with tough, adhering leaves. Back creating its fruit, it usually produces up to 200 flowers, although some large-fruited cultivars can beat this. Once it flowers, the alone fruits of the flowers accompany calm to actualize what is frequently referred to as a pineapple. After the aboriginal bake-apple is produced, ancillary shoots (called 'suckers' by bartering growers) are produced in the blade axils of the capital stem. These may be removed for propagation, or larboard to aftermath added fruits on the aboriginal plant. Commercially, suckers that arise about the abject are cultivated. It has 30 or added long, narrow, fleshy, trough-shaped leaves with aciculate spines forth the margins that are 30 to 100 centimeters (1.0 to 3.3 ft) long, surrounding a blubbery stem. In the aboriginal year of advance the arbor lengthens and thickens, address abundant leaves in abutting spirals. After 12 to 20 months the arbor grows into a spike-like bloom up to 15 cm continued with over 100 spirally arranged, trimerous flowers, anniversary subtended by a bract. Annual colors vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through ablaze amethyst to red.
The ovaries advance into berries which adhere into a large, compact, assorted accent fruit. The bake-apple of a pineapple is abiding in two chain helices, eight in one direction, thirteen in the other, anniversary actuality a Fibonacci number.
Pineapple carries out CAM photosynthesis, acclimation carbon dioxide at night and autumn it as the acerbic malate and again absolution it during the day, acceptable photosynthesis.
Pollination is appropriate for berry formation, but the attendance of seeds abnormally affects the affection of the fruit. In Hawaii, area pineapple is able on an agronomical scale, access of hummingbirds is banned for this reason. Certain bat-pollinated agrarian pineapples alone accessible their flowers at night.
Raw pineapple is an accomplished antecedent of manganese (45% DV in a 100 g serving) and vitamin C (80% DV per 100 g).
Mainly from its stem, pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme, bromelain, which break bottomward protein. If accepting acceptable bromelain content, pineapple abstract can appropriately be acclimated as a alkali and tenderizer for meat. Pineapple enzymes can baffle with the alertness of some foods, such as clabber or added gelatin-based desserts, but would be destroyed during affable and the canning process. The abundance of bromelain in the bake-apple is apparently not significant, actuality mostly in the inedible stalk. Furthermore, an ingested agitator like bromelain is absurd to survive complete the proteolytic processes of digestion.
Southeast Asia dominates apple production: in 2001 Thailand produced 1.979 actor bags and the Philippines 1.618 actor tons, while in the Americas Brazil produced 1.43 actor tons. Total apple assembly in 2001 was 14.220 actor tons. The primary exporters of beginning pineapples in 2001 were Costa Rica, 322,000 tons; Côte d'Ivoire, 188,000 tons; and the Philippines, 135,000 tons.
An green pineapple fruit
A pineapple acreage in Ghana
Since about 2000, the best accepted beginning pineapple bake-apple begin in U.S. and European supermarkets is a low-acid amalgam that was developed in Hawaii in the aboriginal 1970s.
In bartering farming, beginning can be induced artificially, and the aboriginal agriculture of the capital bake-apple can animate the development of a additional crop of abate fruits. Once removed during cleaning, the top of the pineapple can be buried in clay and a beginning bulb will grow. Block and suckers are buried commercially.
Ethical and ecology concerns
Three abode of pineapples awash in Europe are developed in Costa Rica, area pineapple assembly is awful industrialised. Growers about use 20 kg of pesticides per hectare in anniversary growing cycle, a action that may affect clay affection and biodiversity. The pesticides - organophosphates, organochlorines and hormone disruptors - accept abeyant to affect workers' bloom and can alloy bounded bubbler baptize supplies. Abounding of these chemicals accept abeyant to be carcinogens and may be accompanying to bearing defects.
Because of bartering pressures, abounding pineapple workers - 60% of whom are Nicaraguan - in Costa Rica are paid low wages.[quantify] European supermarkets' price-reduction behavior accept bargain growers' incomes. One above pineapple ambassador refutes these claims.
There are abounding cultivars. The leaves of the frequently developed 'Smooth Cayenne' are smooth. and is the best frequently developed apple wide. Abounding cultivars accept become broadcast from its origins in Paraguay and the southern allotment of Brazil. and afterwards bigger stocks were alien into the Americas, the Azores, Africa, India, Malaysia and Australia. Varieties include:
* 'Hilo': A bunched 1–1.5 kg (2-3 lb) Hawaiian alternative of 'Smooth Cayenne'. The bake-apple is added annular and produces abounding suckers but no slips.
* 'Kona Sugarloaf': 2.5–3 kg (5-6 lb), white beef with no woodiness in the center. Annular in shape, it has a aerial amoroso agreeable but no acid. An almighty candied fruit.
* 'Natal Queen': 1–1.5 kg (2-3 lb), aureate chicken flesh, brittle arrangement and aerial balmy flavor. Able-bodied acclimatized to beginning consumption. Keeps able-bodied afterwards ripening. Leaves spiny. Developed in Australia, Malaysia, and South Africa.
Pineapple field, Hawaii (1958)
* 'Pernambuco' ('Eleuthera'): 1–2 kg (2-4 lb) with anemic chicken to white flesh. Sweet, melting and accomplished for bistro fresh. Poorly acclimatized for shipping. Leaves spiny. Developed in Latin America
* 'Red Spanish': 1–2 kg (2-4 lb), anemic chicken beef with affable aroma; boxlike in shape. Able-bodied acclimatized for aircraft as beginning bake-apple to abroad markets. Leaves spiny. Developed in Latin America
* 'Smooth Cayenne': 2.5–3 kg (5-6 lb), anemic chicken to chicken flesh. Annular in appearance and with aerial amoroso and acerbic content. Able-bodied acclimatized to canning and processing. Leaves after spines. This is the array from Hawaii, and the best calmly achievable in U.S. grocery stores. Both 73-114 and 73-50 are of this cultivar.
Traditional anesthetic and basic research
Both the basis and bake-apple may be eaten or activated topically as an anti-inflammatory or as a proteolytic agent. In some practices, it may be acclimated to abet aborticide or menstruation or as an antihelminthic agent.
Bromelain antiseptic from pineapple axis or beginning juice, again provided in the diet over 6 months, decreased the severity of colonic deepening in mice with beginning colitis.
Pests and diseases
Main article: List of pineapple diseases
Pineapples are accountable to a array of diseases, the best austere of which is become ache vectored by mealybugs about begin on the apparent of pineapples, but possibly in the bankrupt bloom cups. Other diseases accommodate blush disease, bacterial affection rot, anthracnose, fungal affection rot, basis rot, atramentous rot, base rot, fruitlet amount rot, and chicken atom virus. Blush ache is characterized by the bake-apple developing a brownish to atramentous birthmark back acrimonious during the canning process. The causal agents of blush ache are the bacilli Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Pantoea citrea.
Some pests that frequently affect pineapple plants are scales, thrips, mites, mealybugs, ants, and symphylids.
Storage and transport
Pineapple able for auction in Haikou, Hainan, China.
Some buyers adopt blooming fruit, others developed or off-green. A bulb advance regulator Ethephon is about sprayed assimilate the bake-apple one anniversary afore harvest, developing ethylene, which turns the bake-apple aureate yellow. After charwoman and slicing they are about canned in amoroso abstract with added preservative.
A pineapple will never become any riper than it was back harvested, admitting a absolutely accomplished pineapple can abrasion and rot quickly.
The bake-apple itself is absolutely decaying and accumulator of it should be taken seriously. If it is stored at allowance temperature, it should be acclimated aural two days; however, if it is refrigerated, the time amount is continued to bristles to seven days.
Usage in culture
In some cultures, the pineapple has become associated with the angle of welcome, an affiliation bespoken by the use of pineapple motifs as carved decorations in woodworking.